Thursday, May 14, 2009

Jane Eyre Blog Post #2

            Jane and Mr. Rochester switch their position in dominancy by the end of the book. Mr. Rochester loses everything in the fire and become a “sightless block.” The traumatizing event causes Mr. Rochester to lose his sight and a hand. His home and his wealth are destroyed in the process. He loses everything with “old John and his wife: he would have none else.” (418) Jane on the other hand gained friends and the money to become independent. In a sense, Jane and Mr. Rochester’s position has switched that allow Jane to have control. However Mr. Rochester still tries to exhibit his control on her to some degree. In the end, the two never reaches equality.


            Jane seems to be more in control of her choices in the final chapters of the book. Only a year earlier in the book, she had no where to go and was stuck with Mr. Rochester. Only when she was able to make the difficult choice of leaving him she gains control of her life. Similar to the events in “A Doll’s House,” by Henrik Ibsen, the wife, Nora, gains control in the end by leaving and becoming independent. In that year, she gains a new home, new friends, and money to support herself. Coming back to Mr. Rochester, she has control over her own life as she is finally able to make her own choice about following temptation. When she first comes in, Jane seems to set the rules and show control. When Mr. Rochester asks questions she explains that he “shall not get it out of [her] to-night. (427) Jane also talks about how she met people hundreds of times better than him, showing she has options and is not afraid to move on. She gain some control but Mr. Rochester is still able to manipulate and call her pet names.


            Mr. Rochester still exhibit some control over Jane. Mr. Rochester constantly uses pet names like “my sky-lark.” (428) He often refers to her as “my Jane” and “my darling” (428) as if she is completely in his possession. The use of “my” shows that he still believes that he is the superior one in the relationship. His actions as well such as when he “broke out suddenly while clasping me in his arms,” (428) show how he possesses Jane. He does not drop into her arms but rather bring her into his arms. He also grasps her when asking questions. Mr. Rochester “retained [her] by a firmer grasp than ever” (430). When Mr. Rochester uses his arms and hands to hold her down, it gives an image of Jane being tied down and restricted. In his mind he believes Jane is his as he loudly states that “[he] thought [his] little Jane was all [his].”(432) The questions he asks seems like demands for information as well. As he grasps her not giving her a choice to ignore his requests, he states if she would “be pleased just to answer a question or two.” (430) The statement gives an illusion of free choice. Earlier in the conversation, she had the ability to turn down his questions and answer it when Jane wanted to. Mr. Rochester did not give her a chance to escape, even if the question sounds like he is giving her free choice. He barrages her with questions to see where “his Jane” has done while she was away. The way he demands for the answers is almost like a parent demanding answers from a child. Mr. Rochester even manipulates Jane’s actions by causing her to feel pity while trying to be considerate. He beats down on himself saying “’I am not better than the old lightning-struck chestnut-tree in Thornfield orchard.’” (433) Jane feels pity for him and causes her to vow to take care of him.


            The relationship between Mr. Rochester and Jane still gives Mr. Rochester control. It is never truly equal. Mr. Rochester uses his pet names and the word “my” to show his possession of Jane. Meanwhile he grasps her and contains her almost like he Jane is truly his. Using manipulation, he is able to make Jane feel pity for him and cause her to watch over him. Jane does not show the resiliently she once showed when she was younger. Jane is calmer and chose to settle down to serve Mr. Rochester. In this sense, the relationship is not equal. 

Blog Post Paragraph Vol 1

The passage from Page 36, second paragraph to the end of the third on the page.

            “I reflected. Poverty looks grim to grown people; still more so to children: they have not much idea of industrious, working, respectable poverty; they think of the word only as connected with ragged clothes, scanty food, fireless grates, rude manners, and debasing vices: poverty for me was synonymous with degradation.”

            “’No; I should not like to belong to poor people,’ was my reply.”

            “’Not even if they were kind to you?’”

            “I shook my head: I could not see how poor people had the means of being kind; and then to learn to speak like them, to adopt, their manners, to be uneducated, to grow up like one of the poor women I saw sometimes nursing their children or washing their clothes at the cottage doors of the village of Gateshead: no, I was not heroic enough to purchase liberty at the price of caste.”


In volume 1 of “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre is greatly characterized by the passage on page 36 that takes the readers though the thoughts and feelings of Jane as her doctor asks her questions. With the use of the knowledge of a child’s mind, sophisticated diction, and Jane Eyre’s own opinion of herself in the passage, Bronte is able to show Jane as a mature and intelligent young girl.

Jane is able to look back on her thoughts and choices and give a deep explanation of her thought process even at a young age. Jane is able to see how being a child alters her choice making habits. Poverty is an intimidating image to image oneself in, “still more so to children: they have not much idea of industrious, working, respectable poverty.” Jane is able to see how her view of poverty maybe partly exaggerated because of her age. Even at her young age she is able to understand that being young affects her thought. The passage allows the readers to be able to see Jane’s mature state of mind. The readers can see her thought process and her thoughts about the poor life. It is easy to agree that Jane has control over her thoughts and is well educated based on the way she reflected about poverty with a child’s mind.


The use of such sophisticated diction in the passage amazes the readers that a child is able to reflect to such an adult level of mind. To a child, poverty means having no money for good food, clothes, education, or a fancy home. Jane is able to expand upon the idea of poverty that it is truly, “industrious, working, respectable poverty.” However, she still have trouble getting over the fact that she believes poverty is “synonymous with degradation.” The use of such sophisticated vocabulary allows the reader to believe that Jane is well educated. Words like “degradation,” “grim,” or “scanty,” allow the readers to see the harsh world Jane envisions. Based on the choice of words in the passage; the readers can see Jane’s exact thoughts about poverty and the deep thought she puts into the delicate topic.


Lastly, the ability for Jane to reflect on herself though out the passage allows the readers to ability to see Jane’s maturity. Jane is able to see what part of living a poor life scares her. To her degradation and poverty are the same things. She fears of living in a much lower standard of life where she would be “with ragged clothes, scanty food, fireless grates, rude manners, and debasing vices.” Jane is able to see her fears of being uneducated and living their life. Even though she wants to find to live with people who truly care about her, she is not brave “enough to purchase liberty at the price of caste.” The ability to look at one self and admit their own flaws demonstrates high levels of maturity even many adults have problems expressing. The passage allows the readers to see Jane’s astonishing talent to understand herself.


With the use of the passage, Jane is easily characterized to be a mature and intelligent young girl. Her ability to understand the differences in though processes between children and adults show her knowledge of different viewpoints. Her sophisticated language gives the readers the impression that Jane is able to deeply describe her thoughts in a well organized manner. Jane’s own ability to reflect on herself throughout the passage shows maturity in such a young age. The passage is rich with Jane’s thoughts, feelings, and character which allows the readers to adore her maturity, openness, and humble attitude.  

Work Consulted

Work Consulted


“Anselm Kiefer.” White Cube. 1 Mar. 2009



The website shows multiple pictures of the Kiefer’s work. It gives a breief biography and his accomplishments in the art world. It also talks about his technique, exebitions, publications, and related links.


Bond, Tony. "Anselm Kiefer: in the studio and the landscape. (art feature)." Art and Australia 44.3 (Autumn 2007): 414(6). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. Boston Public Library. 26 Feb. 2009 


This article describes, in dept, about Kiefer’s studio and how he creates his pieces of art. His large scale paintings are actually created in an industrial sized hangar. He stores pieces of nature that he gains from traveling and uses it for his art. It describes his process of creating art by combining his uncompleted art together. He creates an environment so he could be surrounded in art everyday. His studio is almost like a heaven for artists.


Cowan, Alison. “Grand-Scale Lawn Art Stirs a Debate in Connecticut.” (Metropolitan Desk)” The New York Times, Jan 6, 2007 pB2(L). Infotrac. Boston Public Library. Boston, MA. 26 Feb. 2009

Kiefer’s large scale sculptures create controversy in Connecticut. Andrew and Christine Hall, the owners of the sculpture by Kiefer, believe that it should be kept and it is an expression of the first amendment. The article expresses the ideas and arguments of those who want to keep the sculpture and those who want to take it down.

Johnson, Ken. “The Tragic Sublime And Concrete Rubble. (Movies, Performing Arts/Weekend Desk)(ART REVIEW ANSELM KIEFER).” The New York Times 4 Jan 2008 v157 i54179 pE40(L). Infotrac. Boston Public Library. Boston, MA. 26 Feb. 2009

This article brings to light about a certain piece of art created by Kiefer was recently removed. The piece of art was a large 82 foot long sculpture that had many themes relating to human violence. The article continues on by introducing more creations by Kiefer that also are in enormous size and have the similar theme relating to war.

Jordan, Patrick. "Out of the ashes - exhibition of Anselm Kiefer's works of art." Commonweal. 02 Mar, 2009.


This article focuses on Kiefer’s earlier work. It is a compilation of 54 watercolors, gouaches, woodcuts, acrylics, and photomontages. The article talks about how Kiefer makes the viewer think about what he thinks. In his paintings the subjects revolve around Germanic mythologies, art, and philosophy, but on National Socialism, the Holocaust, and nuclear Armageddon. The article then moves on to describe many of the art work shown.


Jury, Louise "Kiefer creates the twin towers of Piccadilly." Independent, The (London). 02 Mar, 2009.


The article first introduces how Kiefer feels about 9/11. He says he is not a political artist and did not create a piece for 9/11. More of his religion inspires him to create the images and sculptures he has. The article then gives a detail biography of how the German Nazis affect his life.


Serafin, Amy. “The Louvre Now Accepts the Living.(Arts and Leisure Desk)(ART).” The New York Times, 21Oct 2007 v157 i54104 p32(L). Infotrac. Boston Public Library. Boston, MA. 26 Feb. 2009


In this article, Serafin describes his art contributions to the Louvre in Paris. The Louvre has not had any additions since Georges Braque painted the ceiling of Henri II's former antechamber in 1953.


Shone, Richard "Georg Baselitz/Anselm Kiefer/Sigmar Polke - art by Germans exhibited in United Kingdom." ArtForum. 02 Mar, 2009.


The article talks about the three artists mentioned above. It gives detailed background on each of them and how life in German affected them. It tells how Kiefer’s work eventually was brought to the United Kingdom to be viewed.


The 2008 Peace Prize of the German Book Trade Will be Awarded to Anselm Kiefer.” PR Newswire Association LLC (2008). Infotrac. Boston Public Library. Boston, MA. 26 Feb. 2009

The article talks about how Kiefer is awarded the 2008 Peace Prize of the German Book by The German Publishers' and Booksellers' Association. The article also talks about how Kiefer was an artist who made people confront the images of war. It states that his images make the viewer into readers.

The Louvre's Kiefer unveiled.(ARTWORLD)(Anselm Kiefer)(Brief article).” Art in America, Jan 2008 v96 i1 p160. Infotrac. Boston Public Library. Boston, MA. 26 Feb. 2009

This brief article talks about a 30 by 15 foot art project that was just revealed in a staircase of the department of Egyptian antiquities in the Sully wing. It shows a reclined man on cracked soil looking up to the black, gold, and silver sky.



Work Cited

Work Cited



"Anselm Kiefer." UXL Newsmakers. 02 Mar, 2009.


The article goes in dept about the progress Kiefer went though. The article first starts with a little background information on how he started his art career. However, there has not been a lot of information about his life because he refuses to do interviews. The article follows his change in themes and technique as time progresses. Lastly, it shows how he became such a unique and controversial artist.



Colpitt, Frances. "Kiefer as occult poet: a currently traveling survey of Anselm Kiefer's work re-assesses his career, downplaying political controversy in favor of transhistorical mysticism." Art in America 94.3 (March 2006): 104(8). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. Boston Public Library. 2 Mar. 2009 


The article talks about some of Kiefer’s past and one of his art sets “Heaven and Earth.” The article begins by bringing up the controversy that surrounded Kiefer’s intense images during his beginnings. The majority of the article includes pictures of the some of the “Heaven and Earth” images and a deep observation on the technique and meaning behind them.


Craig, Yvonne. "ANSELM KIEFER." Independent Newspapers UK Limited. 1 Mar, 2009.


The article talks about how an artist transforms materials into art, and how Kiefer is a prime example of an artist. The author uses examples from his work in the White Cube gallery. He transforms his interests in mysticism and mythology with unusual items to create art that truly expresses him.


Genocchio, Benjamin. “Peering Through a Telescope of Time, Myth and History. (Westchester Weekly Desk)(ART REVIEW).” The New York Times, 4 June 2006 p16(L). Infotrac. Boston Public Library. 1 Mar. 2009 


The article talks about how Kiefer’s images introduced a taboo subject in the 1980’s. His unique pieces of art allow Germans feeling guilty to relief themselves and give an image to the new generation. He did not work on Holocaust inspired paintings all the time as he progressed to Jewish spirituality and writings of Velimir Chlebinkov.


Glueck, Grace. “Paintings by Anselm Kiefer, Inspired by the Poet Velimir Chlebnikov.” 16 June 2006. 22 March 2009. <>

The article goes into dept about the influence of poems by Velimir Chlebnikov, on Kiefer images. The article gives a brief description of both Velimir Chlebnikov and Anselm Kiefer. The main focus was the images being displayed at the Aldrich exhibition and the creation of the large 6 by 11 feet images.


Hubbard, Sue. "MARGARETE (1981) Anselm Kiefer SAATCHI COLLECTION." Independent, The (London). 02 Mar, 2009.


This article focuses more on how history influenced Kiefer’s art; history such as Paul Celan’s poems about the Holocaust. Celan’s characters allowed Kiefer to created a series of painting that contained Margarete and Shulamite. The article also talks about how his choice in materials to create the painting, like straw, had a deeper meaning. Lastly, it had a final paragraph giving a brief biography.


Jordan, Courtney. "Big questions." Smithsonian 37.6 (Sept 2006): 33(2). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. Boston Public Library. 1 Mar. 2009 


“Big Questions” gives some information about Kiefer’s life. It talks about how being born after World War II affected him and his generation. It also talks about how religion and beliefs affect his art.


Paul, Steve. “Kiefer, Anselm. Anselm Kiefer: Heaven and Earth. (Brief Article)(Book Review).” Booklist, Nov 15, 2005 v102 i6 p12(1). Infotrac. Boston Public Library. 1 Mar. 2009 


The brief article gives a little information about how being born in the 1945 affected his life. The article says that viewers must decide when they see his work whether he is bombast or humble about his grey and controversial work. It also brings to light of multiple reoccurring themes in his sculptures and paintings.


Riding, Alan. “An Artist Sets Up House(s) at the Grand Palais.(The Arts/Cultural Desk)” The New York Times, May 31, 2007 pE1(L). Infotrac. Boston Public Library. Boston, MA. 26 Feb. 2009


The article goes in dept about his technique of creating his art. It talks about his studio, which is a very large facility that houses his art and materials. The article also talks about some of his literary inspirations. The article is mostly about his rise to be a world know artist with his concentration on the Holocaust and large scale paintings.



Temin, Christine. “A NEW CANVAS FOR THE FIRST TIME, A KIEFER SHOW FOCUSES ON HIS PHOTOGRAPHY; [THIRD Edition].” Boston Globe. Boston Aug 16, 2002. pg. E.13. Proquest. Boston Public Library. 1 Mar. 2009 


Kiefer was raised a Nazi while growing up. Pictures were shown with his attire and while he was doing the salute. He is a very unique artist in the way he uses lead to create his art. The article focuses on a few of his images that he created.


Anslem Kiefer Full Research

Anselm Kiefer


Anselm Kiefer is a unique artist in his central themes and style. His life leading up to his high status of an artist is nothing but unique as well. Although, much of his background is life in obscurity based on his preference of being paraphrased rather that quoted, having few interviews, and having no pictures. However, there is still plentiful amounts information about his life entering his art career. There is much information about Kiefer’s progression in the creation of his paintings and sculptures and his rise to become a well recognized artist.


            Kiefer was born in Donaueschingen, southern Germany, on March 8, 1945. The date is close to when Third Reich collapsed. He grew up in a generation of Germans that questioned the actions of their parents. By growing up in this particular generation, influenced the paintings he created. Anselm created his paintings to allow himself to vent his guilt and “question Nazism and try to understand how their parents let this happen.” (Jordan, Courtney 2nd paragraph)


            He first began studying art in the 1970’s with another artist named Joseph Beuys. Although, Beuys was not his teacher he “acknowledges the spiritual influence of the older artist.” (Colpitt, Frances 3rd paragraph) In the 1980’s he moved to Germany’s Oden Forest and owned a school house where most of his earlier works were created. His work first focused on mythical and historic German figures. He soon started to explore the taboo topic of the Third Reich. This focus on post-war Germany separated Kiefer from all other painters in the 1980’s. His expressive but controversial images made viewers decided if his images are “bombast or humble desire that leads him to explore and embrace the universe in paintings and sculpture...” (Paul, Steve 2nd paragraph) One powerful set of paintings that focused on post-war Germany was centered around the poem “Death Fuge” by Paul Celan. Celan was a victim of the Holocaust and the only member of his family that survived. Before he took his own life, he created the poem which had the characters Margarete and Shulamite. These two characters appeared in Kiefer images. In his images he characterizes the two characters to represent Germany and its changes during the war. By going into the taboo subject, he separated himself from other artist during the 1980’s. Unlike other artists he combined history and literature to his art. His style made him well known and different from other artists.


            As time went on, he focused less on reflecting on post-war Germany. More recently, he focuses more on mystics, religion, and alchemy. However, his creations are still unique. Kiefer uses a different array of materials and techniques to create his paintings. He uses materials like “sunflowers, branches, pieces of cloth, terra cotta pottery, plaster, dried mud and lead objects often attached to thick layers of paint,” (Riding, Alan 2nd paragraph) to create his images. Each of his materials also has a specific deeper meaning in it as well. For example, the use of wheat represent how things can be so easily burned down and how a new generation of wheat can grow right over it. He often traveled and took pieces of nature with him back home where he is able to store materials for later use.


            Anslem Kiefer uses unique materials and deep and saddening subjects to show life moves quickly but viewers cannot forget the past. Beside the use of ordinary paints, Kiefer uses items like sunflowers, wheat, dirt, and lead to create his art like the “Margarete.”  Each material he uses is unique and has a deeper meaning in it like the use of wheat and lead. Kiefer also focuses on certain subjects as well.  He focuses religion, the holocaust, and the development of the new generation. In each of Kiefer’s images deep messages are instilled in it for people to reflect and learn lessons from.

Through the use of wheat, contrast of colors, and a sensitive subject, Anslem Kiefer is able to deliver his message to the viewers of his view on how times passes quickly and how a new generation must learn from the past. For example, his set of images called “Your Golden Hair, Margarete” all uses similar themes to pass the message along. The images based on the poem “Death Fugue” by the Romanian poet Paul Celan the viewers can see how the image represents the ever moving world and its new generation.


            Margarete is one out of a set of images based on the poem “Death Fugue” by Paul Celan. Paul Celan was a victim of the Holocaust and the only member of his family that survived. He created the poem “Death Fugue” before committing suicide. Margarete and Shulamite was metaphoric protagonist in his poem, as well as Kiefer’s set of images released in 1981. Kiefer focused on the two characters and characterizes them and their two contrasting natures in his work. The golden wheat represents the golden hair and her Aryan background. Shulamite was portrayed by her black paint for her black hair and Jewish background. The painting Maragarete was created that depicted stems of wheat sticking out of the black ground beneath. The golden wheat stands up tall and reaching up to the blue sky, however with their tips on fire. The image has a very dark tone to it. The blue representing the sky is washed and mixed with grey. The ground is burnt and destroyed with patches of black and white. It looks like ashes of burnt plants. The wheat stands out from the rest of the image with its bright color and lit tips. However the wheat looks withered as well. Lastly, the name, “Margarete” written right in the middle of the painting. The combination of the colors and the themes make his image mournful and full of deeper messages about the history of the Holocuast.


The use of wheat catches the eyes of people as it has a deep meaning as well as being different from other images at the time. The materials Kiefer uses has a certain meaning to him. Wheat has a “potential to  be burnt and turn into ash, it not only implied a landscape scarred and formed by history, war and fire, but also the possibility of alchemical transformation.” (Hubbard, Sue 4th paragraph) Wheat can easily linked with people. Wheat is easily burned and then new wheat is grown in its place. Similar to humans, people eventually die, but a new generation will grow over the ashes of the past. Ashes can be linked to ruins of human society as well. To Kiefer “a ruin is not a catastrophe. It is the moment when things can start again.” (Riding, Alan 3rd paragraph) It also shows how a new generation can easily forget its past because of how quickly time changes things. The ashes of the dead wheat give nutrients and help the new generation grow, however as time passes the wheat grows and covers the ashes from sight. In the end, “transforming raw materials into art and transforming raw history of Germany into a mythology of redemption and rebirth,” (Johnson, Ken 4th paragraph) was the goal of Kiefer’s image. Combining the use of wheat and his knowledge of history, he is able to send a strong message about the continuing growth of a new generation.  


The colors used in the image were carefully picked out to give the meaning of the image in the most appropriate way possible. The contrast between the blue, gold, black, grey, and white allows the image to have this very mournful look. Most importantly, the black and gold of the wheat has a much deeper meaning to the history of the Holocaust. The use of the washed toned down blue with mixes of white and grey allows the image to look damaged and old. The sky does not look clear, but messy and blotchy. The use of black and white to represent the ashes also follows the sloppy look. The wheat also is dried and withered. However, the use of black and gold has a certain harmony in the image. Germany destroyed its harmony by separating the Aryans from the Jewish. Kiefer tries to bring it back together “By pairing these two women in paint, he attempts a restoration of wholeness.” (Hubbard, Sue 3rd paragraph) By placing the black and gold that represent Shulamite and Maragarete together, the gap in the German population is brought together. It also shows how the wheat and ashes are all the same. Once burned the wheat will turn to ash, and once decomposed the ashes will be use for nutrients for the new generation of wheat. The combination of colors gives a saddening image, but under the gloomy colors there is a message for the new generation to see people as equals.


While it might be difficult to see the influence of the Holocaust in the painting as it is “not always readily open to interpretation, theses paintings too, resist it,” (Glueck, Grace last paragraph) but the use of the devastating event gives a strong message and reaches out to many people. By associating the images with the events of the Holocaust there has been controversy of the over all necessity of it. People believe that using the subject was a stunt and named him “as a commercially motivated purveyor of a bombastic nationalistic style.” (Colpitt, Frances Page 1) However, the use of his history was necessary to show the importance of remembering the pass and preserving it for the new and quickly growing generation. His paintings allowed people involved with the event to release their guilt, and a new generation to reflect on the devastation. Without the history, his images would be uninspired and lack meaning and depth.


“Margarete” is a prime example of how his images contain extensive layers of meanings. His unconventional use of wheat gave focus to the image a comprehensible link of the Aryan people. While the use of dull colors gives the image a serious and saddening tone while connecting it physical items and history. Lastly, the use of the Holocaust releases multiple meanings and emotions connected with its events. With the each individual part to “Maragarete” the message would not make the same impact and importance.


Similar to “Maragrete” the images from the The Aldrich exhibition, "Anselm Kiefer: Velimir Chlebnikov” has similar themes and techniques. The images in the exhibition do not have a name, but many of the paintings depict a seascape with low-key colors. Many of the images depicts battle taken over seas represented by one ore more rusted U-boats. Through the use of colors and lead Kiefer is able the violence of war and its affects.


In the Aldrich exhibition, thirty images by Anselm Kiefer are displayed. One specific image displays a U-boat grounded on the shoreline. Similar to Kiefer’s other works; the image is bleak and dark. Kiefer uses light browns, orange, metallic blue, grays, along with whites to give a lifeless and depressing image. The ground bland and has no life growing on it. It looks completely barren, flat, and dry, even if it is close to the water. The water looks metallic and cold. The use of metallic blues and grays makes it look uninviting. Meanwhile the whites used in the water gives the water a violent look. The waves look rough and unpleasant. The sky as well, is dark and depressing. There seem to be no sunlight, clouds, or birds; the sky is a dismal grey and barren sky. Lastly, the U-boat itself looks broken, beaten, and disabled. Beside the fact that it is stranded on a shore, it is left to endure crashing waves of the violent sea. Half of the U-boat is rusted and seems dead. The images are “restless, implacable, seascapes, most bearing an attached lead model of a disabled warship…,” (Glueck, Grace 4th paragraph) that clearly represents the images of a battle at sea.


Through the use of colors, Kiefer is able to show the unattractiveness of war. Compared to the beaches people dream about going on vacation, the painting displays a dismal shore that looks completely lifeless. To create his disheartening images, Kiefer uses “a blending of paint other materials like sand, rust dirt, and straw…,” (Glueck, Grace 8th paragraph) the combination of his low-key color paints with the lifeless dirt and rust gives the image a musty look. The use of a monotone brown to represent the earth shows that it is barren and lifeless. The saddening grays for the sky are bleak and have no trace of sunlight. The water does not display a clear blue ocean. Instead, Kiefer paints a polluted ocean by mixing in metallic grays, blues, oranges, and whites. Kiefer might ever “further toughened by deliberate exposure to weather.” (Glueck, Grace 8th paragraph) The wear and tear adds to the image exceptionally well. Everything in the image looks like it has been worn out by time and the elements. The image shows how straining war is on the people and the enviorment. The U-boat symbolizes wars and the lifeless environment displays the affects of it.


Lead has a strong meaning to Kiefer and it is a unique choice to represent the U-boat in the image. Lead is unique in the fact that it has a strong connection with alchemy. Lead was sought to be the oldest metal in alchemy. To Kiefer an “artist was an alchemist, converting raw materials such as paint and canvases into objects of great profundity.” (Anselm Kiefer 10th paragraph) With lead’s special role in alchemy, lead became an important material to Kiefer. He began to use lead in the 1980’s. Kiefer often created images centered with lead or even whole sculptures with lead. Lead is also especially fitting for his collection of U-boat images because of its ability blocking “radiation, yet poisonous itself.” (Temin, Christine 3rd paragraph) It is fitting because of the role of the U-boat during World War II. U-boat was used to make sneak attacks and create naval blockades. While the U-boat was used in attacks, in the end, the purpose was to protect Germany by giving it the advantage in war. However, the very same advantage was killing and hurting other humans. This also creates the barren look of the painting. The U-boat is surrounded by a lifeless seascape to represent its destruction to life around it. Similar to lead’s ability to protect, it can also hurt people. While lead is an exceptionally important part of the images, other items like “loops of barbed wire, dried sunflowers, twine, [and] gloves,” (Genocchio, Benjamin 9th paragraph) were used in many of his images on display. The use of lead gives a unique twist on his images.


The colors and materials Kiefer uses gives viewers a message by its soulful look. His lead gives war instruments a deeper meaning, as lead can be much like war it self. The use of going to war, using weapons, and lead is that it can damage the user as well at its victim. His worn down and dark colors allows the painting to display stress on both the Germans using the U-boat, as well as Germany itself, through the years of war. The images bring to memory of the events that occurred during World War II. Kiefer wanted to express the negative affects of constant combat by showing its end result.


Finally, the final image “Markische Heide” is a painting that displays dirt path in an area that is presumably Märkische Heide in Germany. This image is particularly different because of the color tones used in the paintings. By using contrasts of colors, the perspective, and the image’s location, he displays a seemingly endless road that can be associated with life.


“Markische Heide” is a rather unique image compared to his other images more closely associated with the Holocaust and its affects. The image itself displays a beaten down dirt path that starts right in front of the middle of the painting and reaches out to the horizon line. On the sides of the road in the front of the painting are low-key-color tones representing grass and wheat. On the right side, the grass seems short and flat with some random trees sticking out. On the left side, looks overgrown with wheat. While near the horizon line the grasslands and sky seems to mesh together. The grasslands in the back and the sky seem to almost come together and it is difficult to separate the two. The colors of the road, sky, and the grasslands in the back of the image are rather bright and hopeful for a painting that Kiefer created. With the use of whites, bright yellows, and light blues, the image has a more positive and lighthearted tone. At the horizon line, the land and sky seamlessly come together.  It is hard to see where the sky begins and where the grasslands end.  Lastly, the words “Markische Heide” is written right in the middle of the canvas, referencing to a small area in Northeastern Germany.


The contrast in colors in “Markische Heide” gives the image many different ways the image can be interpreted. The contrast in color of the grass, wheat, road, and the sky gives the image a hopeful look and a more light-hearted message compared to his other images. In the painting, the road and sky clearly stand out from the rest of the image. Compared to the dark yellows, golds, and blacks of the grass and wheat in the front of the image, the road and sky looks bright with the use of whites, light yellows, and light blues. The path seems like a road that leads to a much brighter future and the correct path to leave the depressing surroundings. The lightly colored path seems to reach out the sky, almost like reaching toward heaven. Looking at this image points out with “his paintings and installation to the potential of humanity for creation, destruction, and renewal.” (Craig, Yvonne 1st paragraph) Even if people are surrounded by a disheartening surrounding, it is important to keep moving and find the renewal of life. Using the light colors to bring out the sky and road from the dark surrounding gives the message of a more hopeful surrounding down the road. The viewers can see how people need to keep moving on their path to find a brighter future later on in life.


The perspective in which the image is drawn gives a view of the path a certain meaning. By viewing it from the front into the horizon, the path almost seems endless as it reaches towards the sky. Meanwhile, the viewer cannot miss the depressing and dark toned immediate image of the grasslands in front of them. The viewers also view the image from Markische Heide, Germany. The image could depict “the land where historic events might have occurred,” (Hubbard, Sue 2nd paragraph) during World War II in Germany. The land surrounding the front of road represents the past that people should not nor can forget. Similar to “Maragarete,” Kiefer once again brings gold and black together; bringing unity to the two part of Germany. The depressing area at the beginning of the path will still be there no matter how far the viewer’s eyes follow the path to brighter grasslands in the back. By look at the path from the angle that Kiefer has given the viewers, the viewer cannot ignore the dark present in front of them; meanwhile they can see the more hopeful future that seems to leads to the sky. Similar to many of his other images, “Markische Heide” reminds the viewers that they need to remember the pass, even the depressing part, as people continue move on down life.


The image’s location at Markische Heide gives deeper meaning to the image. By using Markische Heide which is located in Germany, there are connections to World War II. Markische Heide can be represent as Germany as a whole. The image of a beaten down dirt path with a depressing emptiness surrounding, might have been a common idea during the war. The image of the empty land represents Germany’s “upheavals of the war torn past.” (Hubbard, Sue 6th paragraph) The image can be a reflection of some of Kiefer’s memories. The path is an escape from Germany and its past; however like how a viewer cannot look away from the dark toned grasslands in the front of the image, people cannot forget the affects of Holocaust to Germany.


People involved in the war cannot for the events that happened in the Holocaust and other events. It is possible that Markische Heide is an empty area that is soon changing and becoming a new settlement. The image “Markische Heide” represents the need to move on from the miserable past to a much brighter future. However, people cannot simply forget the past. New generations will move to the brighter future; however this painting is a reminder to remember and reflect back on the Holocaust.


Throughout Kiefer’s art career, he has challenged the limits on art to deliver powerful messages to the public. By being the next generation to be after the Holocaust, they had the duty of reflecting and comprehending the all the horrific events. As time passes on however, the ruins of the generation before them becomes covered and forgotten. The image “Maragarete,” displays how generations of people, who are represented by wheat and ashes, are all the same and quickly grown over each other. The lead U-boats in Kiefer’s images shows the affects of war, as it destroys everything in the process of defending. “Markische Heide” allows the viewer to see a bright future however, never be able to miss the gloomy area in the front of the image. In his images he is able to remind everyone that the past cannot be forgotten even with the quickly changing generation. With the quickly growing generation, it is even more important that they cannot forget so events like the Holocaust should never happen again.